Structural and functional studies of enzymes in nucleotide metabolism : a detailed investigation of two enzymes and interaction profiling of FDA-approved nucleoside analog drugs with 23 enzymes
Sammanfattning: Enzymes in nucleotide metabolism serve as the producers of the building blocks for DNA and RNA. From a medical perspective, nucleotide metabolism, and in particular salvage pathway enzymes, have attracted special interest, as nucleoside prodrugs given in the treatment of cancer and HIV are converted into their active metabolite forms by these enzymes. In this thesis, two enzymes; uridine monophosphate kinase (UMPK) from Ureaplasma parvum (Up) and human phosphoribosyltransferase domain containing protein 1 (PRTFDC1), have been investigated. Furthermore, a nucleoside analog library (NAL) consisting of 45 FDA-approved nucleoside analogs has been developed. The structure of Up-UMPK revealed that it was a hexamer. Kinetic constants were determined for UMP and ATP. UTP was a competitive inhibitor of UMP, and a non-competitive inhibitor of ATP. In contrast to other bacterial UMPKs, Up-UMPK was not activated by GTP. PRTFDC1 is a homolog of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Mutations in HPRT are associated with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. The three-dimensional structures of PRTFDC1 and HRPT are very similar. Even though PRTFDC1 recognizes guanine and hypoxanthine as substrates, the functional turnover rates are less than 1% of the activity of HPRT. NAL was screened using the high-throughput method, differential static light scattering (DSLS). An interaction profile of 23 enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism and NAL was revealed. Interactions were detected for uridine phosphorylase 1 (UPP1) and guanine deaminase (GDA) with eight and six nucleoside prodrugs, respectively. The knowledge gained from this study can be important in the future search for drug lead candidates for UPP1 and GDA.
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