Kampen om katedern : feminiserings- och professionaliseringsprocessen inom den svenska folkskolans lärarkår 1860-1906

Detta är en avhandling från Umeå : Umeå universitet

Sammanfattning: The thesis deals with the development of the secondary school teaching professionduring the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. The emphasisof the study is on the concurrence of three structural processes in this profession:feminization, professionalization and governmental bureaucratization.The "teachers of the people" found themselves deeply affected by radical economicand social structural changes during the transition from classical industrialcapitalism to organized capitalism at the end of the 19th century. These strucuralchanges aggravated the conflicts between the classes and the sexes in society, andthe elementary school became an important institution for social and ideologicalcontrol. But the teachers were not content to be the mindless instruments of thepredominant ideology. At an early stage the elementary school and the teachersthemselves began to live "a life of their own". Both male and female teachers beganto develop strategies in the struggle for power and control over their profession. Inother words, a process of professionalization began.At the same time as the teachers were organized collectively the women's share ofthe profession increased. The teaching of the lower classes was considered verysuitable for unmarried middle-class women, and the cheap female labour wasattractive to the politicians. There were risks of clashes between male and femaleinterests, since the profession also attracted young men from the farming andworking classes, who saw possibilities of social advancement in this sector of theschool system.The men developed different strategies against their female colleagues. Duringthe whole of the 19th century women were integrated into the professional project.At the turn of the century the men developed a strategy of social closure againstwomen, which meant that these were relegated to a lower level. At the same timethe government introduced regulations which were intended to impede women'sfast access to the profession. This triggered off an open conflict between the sexes inthe profession, since the changes were initiated by male elementary school teacherswho were leaders of the professional program as well as leading politicians in thegovernment and the Riksdag.