Intimate partner violence, sociodemographic factors and mental health among population based samples in Sweden

Sammanfattning: Aims: To explore the prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and its association with sociodemographic factors, symptoms of depression, perceived need for mental care and primary health care utilization. Another aim was to explore the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts over a 26 year period and associations between sociodemographic factors and lifetime suicidal ideation. Method: Two postal surveys and face-to- face interviews. Prevalence’s were used in descriptive data. Crude and adjusted Odds Ratios with 95% Confidence Intervals were used in bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: Compared to men, women reported higher prevalence of sexual violence for past year and earlier life. For past year, 11.0% of the men and 8.0% of the women reported exposure to physical violence, whereas 15% of the women and 11.0% of the men reported such violence for earlier in life (Study I). Being single and having poor social support was associated with lifetime exposure to physical and/or sexual IPV among women, whereas among men, a relationship of ≤ 3 years was associated with IPV (Study I). Being exposed to physical, sexual violence as well as isolating control during past year, was associated with self-reported symptoms of depression among women (Study II). Women exposed to physical IPV past 5 years were three times more likely to perceive the need for mental health care as compared to unexposed women (Study III). Of the women aged 20-30 years, 45% reported lifetime suicidal ideation in 2013/15 compared to 1989/91 when 33% reported this. Self-reported rates of attempted suicide remained similar. Among women aged 31-49 years, 35.4% reported lifetime suicidal ideation in 2013/15 compared to 2000/02 when 23.1% reported this. In this age group, lifetime suicide attempts increased from 0.0% in 2000/02 to 3.6% in 2013/15. Having compulsory and/ or high school education, being unemployed, being a student and being single was associated with lifetime suicidal ideation (Study IV). Conclusions: Both women and men were exposed to IPV, however, the exposure showed different patterns between men and women. IPV was associated with symptoms of depression and need for mental care among women. Current finding indicate an increasing trend in suicidal ideation and attempts which should be further explored in future studies.

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