Iron based Li-ion insertion materials for battery applications

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala University, Department of Chemistry - Ångström Laboratory

Sammanfattning: Li-ion batteries are currently the most efficient technology available for electrochemical energy storage. The technology has revolutionized the portable electronics market and is becoming a corner stone for large scale applications, such as electric vehicles. It is therefore important to develop materials in which the energy storage relies on abundant redox active species, such as iron. In this thesis, new iron based electrode materials for positive electrodes in Li-ion batteries were investigated. Lithium iron pyrophosphate (Li2FeP2O7) and two polymorphs of lithium iron sulphate fluoride (LiFeSO4F) were studied.For Li2FeP2O7, preferred oxidation of iron with different coordination numbers within the crystal structure was studied, and six-coordinated iron was found to be oxidized preferentially at lower potentials compared to five‑coordinated iron. Electrochemical cycling resulted in structural changes of Li2FeP2O7 through an increased Li-Fe mixing in the compound, forming a metastable state during battery operation.For tavorite LiFeSO4F, the influence of the amount of a conductive polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), or PEDOT) was studied. All the different amounts of PEDOT coating reduced the polarization significantly, but the trade-off between functionality and weight added also has to be considered. Additionally, the effect of densifying the electrodes to different degrees is reported, and was found to have a significant influence on the battery performance. Also triplite LiFeSO4F was coated with PEODT, and it was found that the electrochemical performance improved, but not to the same extent as for tavorite LiFeSO4F. The faster solid state transport of Li-ions in tavorite type LiFeSO4F possibly accounts for the difference in electrochemical performance.Together, the results presented herein should be of importance for developing new iron based materials for Li-ion batteries.