Från Gotland till Estland : kyrkokonst och politik under 1200-talet

Sammanfattning: Churches in two Estonian counties - Ösel-Wiek and Jerwen - have very many similar features with churches in Gotland. In earlier scientific researches these similarities in styles were explained by the artistic ambitions of single travelling masons, the present research emphasizes the political and artistic preferences of those who ordered the buildings to be built and who financed them. The Danish and German crusades in Livonia had strong influence on the society in Gotland during the first half of the 13th century, which in its turn influenced profoundly the ecclesiastical art on the island. Cistercian and Dominican Orders played the leading role in carrying out the mission and the architectural styles of both orders have had its strong influence on architecture in Gotland as well as in Estonia. The fact that both orders founded their permanent settlements in Gotland very soon is closely connected with the Danish missionary policy. Previous researches of art history have emphasized the domineering role of the Germans in formation of the architectural style in Gotland, but the present research demonstrates that during the first half of the 13th century the influence coming from Lund and Linköping diocese played far more important role. The society in Gotland was not so homogeneous as described in previous historical researches and it is also clearly reflected in the church architecture. The research into the churches at Ösel revealed clear connections between the time the bishops reigned and the changes in the architectural styles in the churches. In mid-13th century Dominican bishops reigned over Reval and Ösel-Wiek and the architectural features of the Scandinavian Dominicans reached Ösel and Jerwen via Dominicans. The Cistercian Convent in Reval and the centre of Roma Monastery in Kolk both founded by the Danish also encouraged the increase of the Scandinavian Cistercian architecture in Estonia. The liturgical tradition of Cistercians and the Dominican preaching also had their influence on the architectural forms of some churches in Estonia and in Gotland.The present research comes to the conclusion that the similar features in the church architecture in Gotland and Estonia are closely connected with the 13th century political history in the Baltic Sea region