Diabetes mellitus and related glucometabolic disturbances in acute myocardial infarction Diagnosis, prevalence and prognostic implications
Sammanfattning: In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a major cause of death. We have studied two populations with respect to the relationship between DM or related glucometabolic disturbances and AMI.In the first population, the prevalence of DM and the importance of the glycaemic state for the long-term prognosis in non-diabetic patients were investigated in patients with AMI admitted to the Coronary Care Unite at Västerås Central Hospital.In the second population, the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), DM and other metabolic abnormalities was investigated in patients with AMI and without known DM admitted to the Coronary Care Units at Västerås and Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm.21% of the patients with AMI had previously known DM and 4% had newly detected DM if diagnosis is based upon fasting blood glucose (F-BG). The glycemic state, measured as HbA1c, at a 5.5 years follow-up was a risk factor for re-infarction and/or death in non-diabetic patients after AMI.If an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is performed, 40-45% of all patients with AMI have DM and in addition about 30% have IGT. Both an OGTT and a single post-challenge blood glucose value after 60 minutes performed at hospital discharge, were independent predictors of IGT or DM at follow-up. Insulin resistance, measured by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), decreased during hospital stay, with no further decrease from hospital discharge to follow-up.In summary, the studies in this dissertation have revealed an unexpectedly high prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in patients with AMI. The glycaemic state, reflected by HbA1c, in non-diabetic patients after AMI has an impact on the long-term prognosis. Consequently, in all patients with AMI, HbA1c and casual blood glucose should be measured at admission and, at least, F-BG at hospital discharge.
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