Valuation of retention/formation relationships using a laboratory piot-paper machine

Sammanfattning: The interdependency between filler retention and paper formation is well-known, where a high retention is accompanied by impaired formation. A challenge for today’s papermakers is to increase the competitiveness for uncoated and coated fine paper, by improving the formation at the same level of retention. Over the years, the use and the demands of retention aids have increased as a consequence of a higher system closure, increased machine speeds and increased filler content. The knowledge of whether some retention aid systems are more or less detrimental to paper formation than other systems, is very limited. The insuffiency of knowledge is, however, also true for other chemical, mechanical and interacting factors, which influence the retention/formation relationship in a complex manner. In order to investigate the retention/formation relationship (features, retention aids, dosage points, etc.), a pilot-scale fourdrinier former (R/F-machine) has been developed. The R/F-machine provides a short circulation of the white water and controlled experimental conditions and is appropriate for cost-effective investigations. Moreover, the R/F-machine has been designed to have a short residence time to chemical equilibrium and the machine has also shown high reproducibility in the results. This licentiate thesis presents the R/F-machine and examines, during constant experimental conditions, the retention/formation relationships for some different retention aid systems. Three single-component cationic polyacrylamides with varying molecular weights and two polyacrylamide-based microparticulate systems with varying microparticles were examined. The retention aid systems were investigated on the R/F-machine, for a fine paper stock (90 % bleached hardwood and 10 % bleached softwood) with addition of 25 % filler (based on total solids content). The results showed that the retention/formation relationship was not dependent on the retention aid system used. All systems showed the same relationship between retention and formation. On the other hand, the various retention aid systems provided different effects considering their retention performance.