Papper och lump studier av kontinuitet och förändring i nordisk pappersindustri från 1600-tal till 1900-tal

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH

Sammanfattning: . This thesis consists of an introduction and four previously published articles. The joint empirical focus is papermaking based on textile rags as fibre raw material. Furthermore the physical environment is central in the studies. The relationship between continuity and change is a prevailing theme. The thesis also pays attention to the use of different sorts of rags and to the connection between this kind of papermaking and the textile industry.The overall purpose is to throw new light upon the paper industry based on rags – a part of early industry seldom mentioned in historical surveys of the industrialization process in Sweden. The aim is also to question the prevalent Swedish historical writing commissioned by the branch, characterized by set divisions between different phases of technical and industrial development, from simple craft to modern industry. One of these borderlines has been drawn between papermaking by hand and papermaking by machine, with the 1830s as the selected transition period. By studying and analysing changes in the traditional and seemingly static papermaking as well as the opposite: the traditional that has lingered in the new, this thesis shows that the course of events was much more complicated than that. An outcome of the studies is that the industrialization of the rag based paper industry has been a complex, uneven and prolonged process.The first main part of the thesis consists of two Swedish regional studies centred on the province of Östergötland in a long-time perspective. The focus is mainly on the long continuity of papermaking by hand, which was carried out between 1628 and 1968. The study shows that a variety of types and sizes of mills regarding ownership, forms of production, location, paper qualities and techniques can be identified. Continuity was the dominating feature but within this framework technological and industrial change also took place.The second main part of the thesis has a Nordic perspective and deals with a shorter period, mainly 1830-1870. One study examines the introduction of the paper-machine and the establishment of the first machine-made paper mills in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland with special attention given to the Swedish mill Holmen in Norrköping and the Finnish Tammerfors mill, both situated in textile mill towns. A second Nordic study surveys hand-made paper mills founded during and after the time when the paper-machine technology had been established. As the studies show, two parallel development tracks were prevalent in the paper industry in the Nordic countries during the period 1830-1870 – papermaking by machine and papermaking by hand.The first paper machines were imported from Britain to some of the oldest and largest paper mills. The introduction of the new technology led to changes in for instance the paper mill buildings and the organization of work regarding the papermaking process. In the preparatory and finishing work manual methods remained, and as before it employed mostly women.At the same time, papermaking by hand continued to change and new hand-made paper mills were founded until as late as the 1890s. The study discusses possible explanations, among them growing markets for special qualities and combinations with other branches of industry.All the studies show a connection between hand-made paper mills and wool mills on one hand, and machine-made paper mills and cotton and linen mills on the other hand. The paper industry based on rags could in fact be characterized as a kind of textile industry