Affibody ligands in immunotechnology applications

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : Bioteknologi

Sammanfattning: This thesis describes the development and use ofnon-immunoglobulin affinity proteins denoted affibodies asalternatives to antibodies in different immunotechnologyapplications. A 58 aa IgG Fc binding three-helix bundle domainZ, derived from staphylococcal protein A has been used asframework for library constructions, in which the face of themolecule involved in the native binding activity has beenengineered by combinatorial protein engineering. Recruting 13surface-located positions for simultanenous substitutionmutagenesis, using degenerated oligonucleotides for libraryassembly at the genetic level, two libraries differing in thechoice of codons were constructed to serve as general sourcesof novel affinity proteins. The libraries were adapted fordisplay onE. colifilamentous phage particles allowingin vitroselection of desired variants capable ofbinding a given target molecule. In selections using human IgAas target, several new IgA specific affibodies could beidentified. One variant ZIgA1, was further investigated and showed binding toboth IgA1 and IgA2 human subclasses as well as to secretoryIgA. This variant was further demonstrated uesful as ligand inaffinity chromatography purification for recovery of IgA fromdifferent samples including unconditioned human plasma.Affibodies of different specificities were also fused to otherprotein domains to construct fusion proteins of relevance forimmunotechnology applications. Using Fc of human IgG as genefusion partner, "artificial antbodies" could be produced inE. colias homodimeic proteins, where the antigenbinding was confered by N-terminally positioned affibodymoieties of different valencies. One area of application forthis type of constructs was demonstrated through specificdetection of the target protein by Western blotting. Exploitingthe uncomplicated structure of affibody affinity proteins, genefusions between affibodies and the homotetrameric reporterenzyme ?-galactosidase were constructed, which could beproduced as soluble proteins intracellularly inE. coli. The potential use of such recombinantimmunoconjugates in immunotechnology was demonstrated in ELISAdot-blot and immunohistochemistry, where in the latter case IgAdepositions in the glomeruli of a human kidney biopsy could bespecfically detected with low background staining ofsurrounding tissues. In a novel format for sandwich ELISA, thepossible advantage of the bacterial origin of the affibodyclass of affinity proteins was investigated. As a means tocircumvent problems associated with the presence of humanheterophilic antibodies in serum, causing bakground signals dueto analyte-independent crosslinking of standard capture anddetection antibody reagents, assay formats based oncombinations of antibody and affibody reagents for capture anddetection were investigated and found to be of potentialuse.Keywords:phage display, combinatorial, affinity, IgAligand, immunohistochemistry, affibody-fusions