Investigation of Incompatibility Reactions Caused by Biomaterials in Contact with Whole Blood Using a New in vitro Model
Sammanfattning: This thesis describes a new in vitro slide chamber model that makes it possible to conduct studies of molecular and cellular interactions between whole blood and biomaterials. The model proved to be a suitable tool for detection of cell and platelet binding to a biomaterial surface. It was possible to monitor activation of the blood cascade systems and cells in the fluid phase and detect surface-bound molecules.One finding was that thrombin generation is primarily triggered by FXII on a biomaterial surface since corn trypsin inhibitor, inhibited thrombin generation in blood.Another finding was that thrombin generation was dependent on variety types of blood cells, since thrombin generation was almost negligible in platelet-rich plasma. When various preparations of blood cells were used to reconstitute platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma, erythrocytes were shown to be the most efficient cell type in triggering thrombin generation. Inhibition of platelet aggregation with aspirin and Ro44-9883 was associated with a decrease in thrombin generation, confirming that platelet activation is necessary for normal coagulation activation. These findings suggest that the central events consist of an initial low-grade generation of thrombin that involves erythrocytes and possibly leukocytes which leads to activation of platelets; and a second platelet-dependent amplification loop that produces most of the thrombin.Titanium exposed to whole blood produced high amounts of thrombin. Stainless steel and PVC, generated lower amounts. This indicates that titanium might be less suitable as a biomaterial in devices that are in direct contact with blood for prolonged time. Considering the superior osteointegrating properties of titanium and titanium's response to blood, a correlation between high thrombogenicity and good osteointegration seems to exist.Compstatin, that binds to complement component C3, effectively inhibited the generation of C3a and sC5b-9 and the binding of C3/C3 fragments to the surface. Our results suggest that a biomaterial is able to activate complement through both the classical and alternative pathways and that the classical pathway alone is able to maintain a substantial bioincompatibility reaction. The results show that complement activation is a prerequisite for activation and binding of PMNs to the surface in the in vitro model.
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