Gestaltningsprogram i stadsutvecklingsprojekt

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : KTH

Sammanfattning: This licentiate thesis on architecture addresses how the state and municipalities use programs that deal with the design process in town planning projects. The author describes the process of creating an aesthetic design program and also studies a completed aesthetic design program. Furthermore, the author combines different findings and presents how programs develop during the planning process.The background of the work with architectural policy programs by the state agencies can be tracked in the program Shape of the Future – Program of Action, Design and Creative Design, 1997. Municipalities have also been influenced by architectural policy programs in their work. Changes in the Plan and Built Act, 1998/1999 that concern aesthetic values have also had effect on their work.The thesis presents four studies that comprise concept analysis, a case study of a municipal planning process, a road movie test and finally a comparison of different methods for evaluation of aesthetic design programs in road design projects. The first study presents a survey of the linguistic usage for programs that concern the design process. Examples from Sweden from the period 1999-2005 have been studied. Also, differences in the usage of the programs between the property developers and the town planning departments have been studied. The study showed that four types of programs were more commonly used: achitectural programs, aesthetic design programs, architectural quality programs and urban design programs. The distinctions in the programs can be used as foundation for more clear and uniform language use among the property developers and town planning departments.The second study follows the planning process of creating an aesthetic design program for the area Kvibergs äng in Gothenburg. An example of city development, the planning process contains both house planning and traffic planning. By the study the author search to increase the comprehension of developing aesthetic design programs and the knowledge of the distribution of power in town planning projects. The case relies on multiple sources of evidence, participant observations have been a main source. The case study consists of two kinds of analysis, a process analysis account of planning process and a discourse analytic interpretation of work of the planning group. The work with the aesthetic design program and the city plan stopped before it was completed. The planning group did not succeed in creating consensus among key actors. The differences in objectives among the architectural discourse, traffic planning discourse and the property developer discourse are some of the reasons why the aesthetic design program has not been completed. There were differences in interests and goals among the participants in the project of city development. The claim made throughout the study is that a common goal for the planning work is significant and it is essential to create consensus among the participants. In addition, the municipalities need guidance for aesthetic design programs to be able to guarantee the architectural quality.The third study describes a full scale experiment “road movie”. A film and a questionnaire were tried to evaluate the aesthetic design program for the detour past Sollefteå. The question was: Are film and questionnaire more easily available in comparison to traditional evaluation methods? Film was chosen as medium, since while driving on the road the experience is dynamic and similar to watching the movie. The film was shown to three independent groups. A total of 25 persons participated in the test. The informants were all professionals, either students or persons that worked with design tasks. The informants were asked to answer questions that concerned three kinds of evaluation criteria: research criteria, professional criteria and criteria specific for the program.The experiment showed that the informants had a positive attitude to use film for showing completed aesthetic design and evaluating road architecture. Film was a medium that showed critical viewpoints on the aesthetic design program and on completed design measures. In the beginning the method was expensive and took a lot of time, which was compensated by the fact that it was possible to conduct anywhere and anytime. The film also gave a good general impression of the road. The method was good at putting together measures and result when appraising the aesthetic design program.The fourth study shows a comparison of methods for evaluations that were used for completed aesthetic design programs at the Swedish Road Administration. A rich material was available to investigate the difference between film and other methods for evaluation. The evaluations carried out were: Tuning at place with the aesthetic design program, Evaluation at place with criteria and Qualitative evaluation. The issue investigated was: Which one of the methods of evaluation gave the best basis for assessment of the aesthetic design program and the result of the completed design measures. The study showed that used methods were suited in different situations. Tuning at place with the aesthetic design program was the fastest and cheapest method, it was only a local evaluation. With Evaluation at place with criteria more resources were needed, a discussion with informants was added. The method Qualitative evaluation was the only one of the methods that had users in the role as informants. The users provided new information through local knowledge. Film and questionnaire was the only one of the methods that gave critical comments to the aesthetic design program. The method put together program, measures and result. The method Film and questionnaire is based on criteria of research. Method and result become comparable with other evaluations that are built on theory.

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