Properties and analysis of dioxin-like compounds in marine samples from Sweden
Sammanfattning: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been assigned toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). These compounds are today routinely analysed with sophisticated analytical techniques. In a near future, there might be other dioxinlike compounds such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), alkyl-polychlorodibenzofurans (R-PCDFs), and polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTs) added to this list of toxic dioxin-like compounds. It is therefore important to have a readiness to analyse these new compounds in environmentalsamples. In this study, a multi-residue non-destructive analytical method for the analyses of these planar dioxin-like compound classes was developed. The use of HPLC PX-21 carbon column fractionation enabled the separation of interfering PCBs from coplanar PCBs and other planar dioxin-like compounds of interest.The obtained planar fraction containing the dioxin-like compounds was analysed using high-resolution GC-MS. Levels of PCNs in surface sediments and settling particulate matter in the northern Baltic Sea were determined. The concentrationsof PCNs in background surface sediments were approximately 1 ng/g dw and the estimated PCN fluxes were similar to the pre-industrial levels determined in Europe. The PCN congener patterns in the surface sediments suggest that the PCNs deposited in the Baltic Sea originate from similar sources.Bioaccumulation of PCNs in a benthic food chain (sediment, amphipod, isopod, and four-horned sculpin) from the Gulf of Bothnia was studied. The results indicated that only a few PCN congeners biomagnified. The highest biomagnification factors (BMFs) were found for 2,3,6,7-substituted congeners and those lacking adjacent hydrogen-substituted carbon atoms. The calculated biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) showed that the tetra- and penta- CNs exhibited BSAF values higher than one, while BSAFs for the more chlorinated PCNs were less than one.A general difference between the northern and southern parts of the Gulf of Bothnia could be seen in the samples, with the lowest PCN and total PCB concentrations being found in the north and the highest in the south. This gradient is related to distance from the more industrialised and populated regions in the southern parts of Sweden and Finland, and central Europe.Analysis of R-PCDFs in crustacean samples from the Swedish west coast was performed using HRGC-MS/MS. The ?R-PCDFs in these samples were present at concentrations up to 10 times higher than the ?PCDFs. The relatively highconcentrations of R-PCDFs in the crab samples demonstrate that these compounds bioaccumulate.The fate of a pollutant in the environment and the toxicity of a compound are governed by its physicochemical properties. The information found in a data set of properties can predict a compound’s mode of action. The following physicochemical properties for 87 PCDFs were measured: ultra-violetadsorption, relative retention times on two common gas chromatographic stationary phases, and relative mass spectrometric response factors using EI- and NCI- modes.
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