Nutritional Screening of Older Patients : Developing, Testing and Using the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE)
Sammanfattning: The overall aim of this thesis was to develop, test and use a simple, clinically useful instrument for the nutritional screening of older patients. Four studies were performed, with a quantitative approach, in a geriatric rehabilitation ward in western Sweden. The number of patients who par-ticipated was: 56 (I), 114 (II), 147 (III) and 144 (IV) older patients.A nutritional screening instrument, the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE), was constructed (I) and tested regarding reliability and validity (I, II). NUFFE was used in a screening, and the screening results were related to the patients’ perceived health and compared to the nurses’ nutritional notes in the nursing documentation (III). The screened patients’ self-care ability and sense of coherence (SOC) were investigated and the patients’ perceived health was related to selfcare ability and SOC (IV). The collection of data was done through interviews with the instruments NUFFE (I-IV), the Selfcare Ability Scale for the Elderly (SASE) (IV), Antonovsky’s SOC scale (IV), a question about perceived health, healthrelated ques-tions (III, IV) and background variables (I-IV). Weight and height were measured (I-III). The nurses’ nutritional notes in the nursing documentation were collected (III).The screening instrument contains 15 threepoint items on ordinal level. The total score ranges between zero and 30 and a higher score indicates higher risk for undernutrition. Evidence of reliability and validity was shown (I, II). The determined cut-off points of NUFFE for identification of patients at low, medium and high risk for undernutrition were set to scores of <6, ≥6 and ≥13 (III). The screening results showed that 31% of the patients were identified to be at low risk for undernutrition, 55% at medium risk and 14% at high risk. When the screening results were compared to nurses’ nutritional notes in the nursing documentation, it was shown that important nutritional issues were absent in many patient records (III). The patients at high risk were more likely to perceive ill health than were those at low risk for undernutrition (p=0.03) (III). Those at medium or high risk were more likely to perceive ill health (p=0.014) and to have lower self-care ability (p<0.001) and weaker SOC (p=0.007) than were those at low risk for undernutrition. To perceive good health was associated with higher self-care ability (p<0.001) and stronger SOC (p<0.001). Lower self-care ability, being single and having been admitted from another hospital ward were three obtained predictors for being at medium or high risk for undernutrition (IV).In conclusion, NUFFE is a simple, useful screening instrument for identification of older nutritional at-risk patients. The instrument has sufficient evidence of reliability and validity. Using NUFFE in a screening of older patients, the prevalence of patients at medium or high risk for undernutrition was found to be high. Nurses’ nutritional notes showed deficiencies, indicating that all medium or high risk patients were not identified. Using NUFFE, associations were found between older patients’ nutritional risk and their perceived health, and their self-care ability and SOC, respectively. These associations indicate that being at low risk for undernutrition is concomitant with perceived good health, higher self-care ability and stronger SOC. Conversely, being at medium or high risk for undernutrition is concomitant with perceived ill health, lower self-care ability and weaker SOC.
KLICKA HÄR FÖR ATT SE AVHANDLINGEN I FULLTEXT. (PDF-format)