Method development and applications of Pyrosequencing technology

Detta är en avhandling från Stockholm : Bioteknologi

Sammanfattning: The ability to determine nucleic acid sequences is one ofthe most important platforms for the detailed study ofbiological systems. Pyrosequencing technology is a relativelynovel DNA sequencing technique with multifaceted uniquecharacteristics, adjustable to different strategies, formatsand instrumentations. The aims of this thesis were to improvethe chemistry of the Pyrosequencing technique for increasedread-length, enhance the general sequence quality and improvethe sequencing performance for challenging templates. Improvedchemistry would enable Pyrosequencing technique to be used fornumerous applications with inherent advantages in accuracy,flexibility and parallel processing.Pyrosequencing technology, at its advent, was restricted tosequencing short stretches of DNA. The major limiting factorwas presence of an isomer of dATPaS, a substitute for thenatural dATP, which inhibited enzyme activity in thePyrosequencing chemistry. By removing this non-functionalnucleotide, we were able to achieve DNA read-lengths of up toone hundred bases, which has been a substantial accomplishmentfor performance of different applications. Furthermore, the useof a new polymerase, called Sequenase, has enabled sequencingof homopolymeric T-regions, which are challenging for thetraditional Klenow polymerase. Sequenase has markedly madepossible sequencing of such templates with synchronizedextension.The improved read-length and chemistry has enabledadditional applications, which were not possible previously.DNA sequencing is the gold standard method for microbial andvial typing. We have utilized Pyrosequencing technology foraccurate typing ofhuman papillomaviruses, and bacterial andfungal identification with promising results.Furthermore, DNA sequencing technologies are not capable oftyping of a sample harboring a multitude of species/types orunspecific amplification products. We have addressed theproblem of multiple infections/variants present in a clinicalsample by a new versatile method. The multiple sequencingprimer method is suited for detection and typing of samplesharboring different clinically important types/species(multiple infections) and unspecific amplifications, whicheliminates the need for nested PCR, stringent PCR conditionsand cloning. Furthermore, the method has proved to be usefulfor samples containing subdominant types/species, and sampleswith low PCR yield, which avoids reperforming unsuccessfulPCRs. We also introduce the sequence pattern recognition whenthere is a plurality of genotypes in the sample, whichfacilitates typing of more than one target DNA in the sample.Moreover, target specific sequencing primers could be easilytailored and adapted according to the desired applications orclinical settings based on regional prevalence ofmicroorganisms and viruses.Pyrosequencing technology has also been used forclone-checking by using preprogrammed nucleotide additionorder, EST sequencing and SNP analysis, yielding accurate andreliable results.Keywords:apyrase, bacterial identification, dATPaS, ESTsequencing, fungal identification, human papillomavirus (HPV),microbial and viral typing, multiple sequencing primer method,Pyrosequencing technology, Sequenase, single-strandedDNA-binding protein (SSB), SNP analysis