Bone Healing after implantation of bone substitute materials. Experimental studies in estrogen deficiency

Sammanfattning: Bone formation and bone healing were studied in the mandible, tibia and skull bones in adult, healthy and estrogen deficient rabbits implanted with different bone substitutes. In the first study an evaluation of the differences in bone regeneration in and around solid (Alveograf ') and porous hydroxyapatite (Interpore 200') was undertaken. The implant material was placed into experimentally made bone defects and in half of the defects hydroxyapatite was mixed with a fibrin sealant (Tisseel '). The material alone or mixed with Tisseel was also placed subperiostally in the mandible. The observation time was six month. No difference in bone regeneration was found between solid or porous hydroxyapatite granulas and the addition of Tisseel' did not seem to disturb the bone healing process. The implant material placed subperiostally did not induce bone formation nor did it provoke any bone resorption. The addition of Tisseel made the implant material much easier to handle and retain in the tissue during surgery.Bone healing around hydroxyapatite implants was also evaluated in the second study. Experimental cavities in the mandible and tibia were filled with hydroxyapatite in granules or blocks (Interpore 200') but now with or without autolyzed, antigen-extracted, allogeneic bone (AAA). Also in this study Tisseel' was used to facilitate the handling of the material. All cavities implanted with AAA-bone, regardless of the combination with hydroxyapatite or Tisseel, demonstrated excessive bone formation resembling exostosis formation. Thus, hydroxyapatite, both as granules and blocks, can be successfully combined with AAA bone utilizing the bone inductive capacity of AAA bone.The same model was used to study the healing in ovariectomized animals in the third study. Bone cavities were implanted with or without AAA bone and left to heal. The results indicate that the osteoinductive capacity of AAA bone is in operation also in animals deprived of a normal estrogen production.The effect of using AAA bone prior to implant insertion was studied in paper four. The bone-implant contact was significant higher when AAA bone had been used. The implant stability did not seem to be affected.In paper five defects were made in skull and tibial bone in estrogen deficient animals. The deficiency of estrogen was confirmed through blood analysis, the decrease in the weight of uterus and bone mineral density. The whole body scanning with DEXA showed that the ovariectomized animals developed osteopenia. Various degree of bone formation was seen in the defects due to the influence of the bone inductive substance AAA bone. The studies indicate that a conductive material like hydroxyapatite in granules or blocks could be useful in oral reconstructive surgery. The combination with AAA bone enhanced the bone formation in calvarial and tibial bone in healthy and estrogen deficient animals. Tisseel' could be used to facilitate handling and retention of the material in the intended position during the healing process without negative effects.