Ämnet som nästan blev : En studie av metodiken i lärarutbildningen 1842- 1988
Sammanfattning: The development of "teaching practice" (Sw: "metodik") in teacher training (compulsory school level, that is, primary and secondary junior high school or grades 1 to 9) from 1842 to 1988 is described. Based on a number of evaluations of teacher training the following questions are posed: Has an earlier central role for teaching practice in teacher training changed? Has teaching practice become marginalised in teaching training? The empirical sources for this thesis are white papers and curricula for teacher. The approach adopted is based on frame factor theory.Teaching pratice has deep historical roots and tracing them can provide an interesting perspetive on the role of teaching practice today. The work reported here is the first detailed analysis of the place of teaching practice in the training of teachers for the Swedish compulsory school system. The development of teaching practice is traced step by step through each of the state reforms of teacher training for compulsory schools.Teaching practice is here defined as those techniques necessary for a successful meeting between teacher and pupil. The results show that in the development from 1842 to 1988, responsibility for the learning process shifted from, firstly, being the sole responsibility of the teacher to later becoming the sole responsibility of the pupil. In 1842 teaching practice was based on what is known as the Bell and Lancaster method. By 1862 each school topic hade devised its own formal structured methodology. At the beginning of the 20th century a more modern teaching practice, influenced by the "activity school" movement, was introduced. This was an important step toward teaching practice becoming a specialized discipline of its own. The 1968 school reform created a more scientifical model of teaching practice. Teaching practice for seconday school teacher education (junior high school) is also discussed in the context of a probationary year for these teachers (so called "Grades 4-9 Teachers"). Another focus of the thesis is the clash of traditons between Teacher Training Colleges and Universities as manifested in the most recent teacher training programmes for comprehensive compulsory school teachers (so called, Grades 1-7 Teachers). These tensions have come about since the incorporation of Teacher Training Colleges into the University and Constituent College system. The research reported attempts to explain how and why teaching practice in 1968 became a formal, but not in academic terms, a discipline of its own. Three dominant codes have been identified: the parallel code 1842-1886, the conflicting code 1914-1958, and the integrating code 1968-1988. The delineation of the State's code of university subject areas is also discussed, particularly in the light of the special problem of the varying status of the subject area known as "teaching practice". A presentation of the various categories of teacher trainers that have been involved in lecturing on teaching practice is also presented. It is concluded that variations in teaching practice have been used as a governemental tool in directing the development of teacher training and ultimatley in the development of the schooling system itself.
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