Novel Pharmacometric Methods for Informed Tuberculosis Drug Development
Sammanfattning: With approximately nine million new cases and the attributable cause of death of an estimated two millions people every year there is an urgent need for new and effective drugs and treatment regimens targeting tuberculosis. The tuberculosis drug development pathway is however not ideal, containing non-predictive model systems and unanswered questions that may increase the risk of failure during late-phase drug development. The aim of this thesis was hence to develop pharmacometric tools in order to optimize the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs and treatment regimens.The General Pulmonary Distribution model was developed allowing for prediction of both rate and extent of distribution from plasma to pulmonary tissue. A distribution characterization that is of high importance as most current used anti-tuberculosis drugs were introduced into clinical use without considering the pharmacokinetic properties influencing drug distribution to the site of action. The developed optimized bronchoalveolar lavage sampling design provides a simplistic but informative approach to gathering of the data needed to allow for a model based characterization of both rate and extent of pulmonary distribution using as little as one sample per subject. The developed Multistate Tuberculosis Pharmacometric model provides predictions over time for a fast-, slow- and non-multiplying bacterial state with and without drug effect. The Multistate Tuberculosis Pharmacometric model was further used to quantify the in vitro growth of different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the exposure-response relationships of three first line anti-tuberculosis drugs. The General Pharmacodynamic Interaction model was successfully used to characterize the pharmacodynamic interactions of three first line anti-tuberculosis drugs, showing the possibility of distinguishing drug A’s interaction with drug B from drug B’s interaction with drug A. The successful separation of all three drugs effect on each other is a necessity for future work focusing on optimizing the selection of anti-tuberculosis combination regimens.With a focus on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, the work included in this thesis provides multiple new methods and approaches that individually, but maybe more important the combination of, has the potential to inform development of new but also to provide additional information of the existing anti-tuberculosis drugs and drug regimen.
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