In Vitro Studies of Adrenocorticolytic DDT Metabolites, with Special Focus on 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE

Detta är en avhandling från Uppsala, Sweden : Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis

Sammanfattning: The DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE (3-MeSO2-DDE) is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 11B1 (CYP11B1) in the adrenal cortex of mice and forms irreversibly bound protein adducts, reduces glucocorticoid secretion, and induces cell death selectively in cortisol-producing adrenocortical cells. 3-MeSO2-DDE has therefore been proposed as a lead compound for an improved adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) therapy.The aims of this thesis were to (1) develop in vitro test systems based on murine and human adrenocortical cell lines and to (2) investigate the mechanisms behind 3-MeSO2-DDE toxicity in adrenocortical cells.The cytotoxic and endocrine-modulating effects of 3-MeSO2-DDE were compared to those of o,p?-DDD (mitotane), the current ACC therapy, and to those of several structurally analogous compounds in both murine and human cell lines. 3-MeSO2-DDE bioactivation and cytotoxicity proceeded in a similar manner in the murine adrenocortical Y-1 cell line as in mice in vivo. The effects were highly structure-specific. Moreover, 3-MeSO2-DDE formed irreversibly bound protein adducts and caused cell death also in the human H295R cell line, and was slightly more cytotoxic than o,p?-DDD. However, 3-MeSO2-DDE toxicity in human cells was not affected by the CYP11B1 inhibitor etomidate, suggesting that bioactivation in human cells is performed by additional/other enzyme(s) than CYP11B1. 3-MeSO2-DDE generated biphasic responses in cortisol and aldosterone secretion and in expression levels of the steroidogenic genes CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and StAR. Such hormesis-like responses were not seen for o,p?-DDD or the precursor DDT metabolite p,p?-DDE.In addition, the two o,p?-DDD enantiomers (R)-(+)-o,p?-DDD and (S)-(-)-o,p?-DDD exhibited slight differences in cytotoxic and endocrine-modulating activity in H295R cells.In conclusion, this thesis  provides  extended  knowledge  on  the  mechanisms  of  action  of 3-MeSO2-DDE and points out important differences in effects between murine and human cells. Lead optimisation studies of 3-MeSO2-DDE using the herein presented in vitro test systems are ongoing.