Banketableringar i främmande länder
Sammanfattning: During the last few decades banks from all over the world have begun to establish abroad. The extent of this process may give an impression of a successful development. However, this in many cases has proved to be difficult and sometimes dangerous. The purpose of this study therefore is to analyse issues related to the establishment of banks abroad. When so doing it is crucial to take the special features of banking into account. Apart from the literature about internationalisation and banking which is here duscussed the study also has important empirical elements. All of the Swedish banks´foreign branches and subsidiaries were investigated through interviews and a questionnaire.The findings emphasize the importance of experiential knowledge of local conditions in banking, since the handling of risks often has strong connections to the local context. When banks enter the local market with insufficient caution enough extensive losses may ensue. It was also confirmed that relationships between banks and companies are long lasting and characterised by a bank to build new relationships and therefore to establish in new markets. The banks were of course helped when they already had relationships to customers in the market, but this advantage proved to be unexpectedly difficult to use. This was due partly to the fact that the subsidiaries to Swedish companies were embedded in the local network, and partly to the problems inherent in creating satisfactory flows of information, customers and business between the banks' domestic and foreign units.Another interesting finding consisted in the difficulties in managing the foreign units. One aspect thereof is that the head office is unfamiliar with the foreign units' context. The most obvious was however the effects of the limited physical barriers in banking. Only a few persons can participate n very large deals and also in many different business-areas. This can increase costs and thereby cause further expansion. This in combination with demands from the head office for high profits, can result in negative spirals which lead to withdrawals or at least reductions. The establishment of foreign bank-units consequently is a difficult and sometimes dangerous balancing-act.
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