Quantitative imaging with PET : performance and applications of 76Br, 52Fe, 110mIn and 134La

Sammanfattning: The use of positron emission tomography (PET) has so far mainly been limited to a few nuclides with short half-lives such as 11C and 18F. Certain applications require nuclides with longer half-lives, such as 76Br and 52Fe. In radionuclide therapy positron emitting analogues of therapeutic nuclides, such as 110mIn, or daughter nuclides, such as 134La, can enable improved dosimetry with the use of PET. A challenge associated with the use of these positron emitters is that they emit gamma radiation in cascade with positrons, which complicates quantitative PET imaging. Other possible problems are the high energies of the emitted positrons, and the decay of 52Fe to the short-lived positron emitter 52mMn. Performance measurements were made to investigate the effects of these decay characteristics on the quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, and other parameters of PET. The distribution of gamma radiation coincidences in PET data was studied and correction methods were implemented and evaluated. PET resolution degrades with 1-2 mm for the studied nuclides in comparison with 18F. The implemented sinogram tail fit and delayed coincidence based gamma radiation coincidence correction methods lead to a quantitative accuracy similar as for 18F and to improved image contrast. Standard dead time corrections are not adequate for gamma-emitting nuclides. Noise equivalent count rates are considerably lower for 76Br than for 18F at clinically relevant radioactivity concentrations. A method to correct 52Fe patient data for the contribution of 52mMn is discussed. The use of 110mIn is evaluated in a patient study and compared to SPECT imaging with 111In. A dosimetric and PET evaluation of the use of 134Ce/134La for radionuclide therapy and dosimetry is presented. Dosimetry of 76Br-labelled antibodies is studied in a pig model. Finally, the possibility to use PET for dosimetry during radionuclide therapy is studied and a nonuniform dose calculation program is presented.