Fluorine-Free Phosphorus-Based Ionic Materials and Electrolytes

Sammanfattning: Due to the successful commercialization of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), there is a growing interest in developing new battery materials with beneficial electrochemical properties. However, the uneven distribution of lithium resources and the low abundance of lithium in the earth crust are the main obstacles for further development and large-scale production of LIBs. Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), an alternative that can partly meet the energy storage challenges, are getting attentions of researchers due to the wide availability and lower cost of sodium resources. Nevertheless, the conventional liquid electrolytes of either LIBs or SIBs composed of fluorinated salts dissolved in volatile organic solvents, posing serious safety issues due to the instability of the salts and flammability of the solvents. There is an urge to develop new fluorine-free electrolytes with improved physicochemical and electrochemical properties. In this context, the conventional fluorinated salts should be replaced with fluorine-free salts and the flammable solvents should be substituted with non-flammable solvents. There are a number of strategies to develop high-performant electrolytes including ambient-temperature ionic liquids (ILs), organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) and highly concentrated electrolytes (HCEs) utilizing new salts and solvents.In this thesis, novel phosphorus-based ionic materials and electrolytes are introduced and their properties are thoroughly investigated. In the first part (Paper I), fluorine-free NaDEEP salt and TEOP solvent are employed to make “solvent-in-salt” (SIS) sodium electrolytes, also known as HCEs. Unexpectedly, the addition of TEOP solvent lead to an increase in the oxidation stability of the SIS electrolytes. In addition, an unusual ionic conductivity behavior is found – the ionic conductivities of Na electrolytes increase with increasing salt concentration. The “salt-rich” and “solvent-rich” phases formed within the electrolytes are investigated using multinuclear liquid-state NMR spectroscopy and NMR diffusometry. In the second part (Paper II), a series of orthoborate-based ionic materials, specifically OIPCs, containing phosphonium/ammonium cations are prepared to compare with the popular fluorine-free, bis(oxalato)borate (BOB) salts. The tetrabutyl phosphonium bis(glycolato)borate ([P4444][BGB]) OIPC displays much higher decomposition temperature than the structural analogous [P4444][BOB] IL. The crystal structures of LiBGB and NaBGB salts are resolved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Unlike LiBOB, the BGB-based salts revealed excellent moisture stability over an extended time of up to 8-weeks air exposure. Multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy indicates weaker cation-anion interactions in phosphonium-based salts than the ammonium-based ones. Finally, in the third part (Paper III), two-component and three-component eutectic electrolytes, composed of pyrrolidinium saccharin (PySc), lithium saccharin (LiSc) and/or [P4444][BGB] salt. The resulting mixtures showed significantly lower melting temperatures than the neat salts. The physicochemical and thermal properties of these salts are thoroughly investigated and discussed.

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