Fatty acid methyl esters as reactive diluents in solvent-borne thermally cured coil-coatings
Sammanfattning: This work describes how a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from a vegetable oil can be introduced as reactive diluent in a solvent-borne thermally cured coil-coating system. The evaluated reactive diluent, rape seed methyl ester (RME), has been evaluated both in a fully formulated clear coat system and via model studies.A reactive diluent is a compound that acts as a solvent in the liquid paint, lowering the viscosity, and chemically reacts into the final film during cure. Introduction of a reactive diluent derived from vegetable oil give a more environmental compliant coating since a renewable material is incorporated in the coating and the amount of traditional solvent can be decreased. These positive environmental factors have increased the industrial interest.The fully formulated clear coat studies describes how addition of reactive diluent affects rheological properties of the wet paint, film formation, incorporation, and final film properties in a hydroxyl-functional polyester/melamine coil-coating system. The coating were cured under industrial coil-coating cure conditions and analyzed with Raman, carbon-14 dating, extraction, dynamic mechanical analysis, and visually observed. Viscosity measurement of the wet paint show that RME works as a diluent. RME increase the mobility in the system enhancing the film formation process and occurrence of defect-free films. The incorporation of RME could not be confirmed by Raman analysis. However, carbon-14 dating did indicate the presence of RME that could not be extracted from the films. The appearance and mechanical properties of the films were also significantly affected by addition of RME. Dynamic mechanical analysis of the free standing films showed that the final film properties were affected by oven temperature, choice of co-solvent, and flash-off period.Model studies were performed to further clarify how RME chemically can react through transesterification with the hydroxyl-groups of the polyester. RME and its two main components methyl oleate and methyl linoleate were reacted with primary alcohols with and without tertiary hydrogen both under low temperature (110, 130, 150, 170°C) and industrial cure conditions. The transesterification reaction was monitored with 1H-NMR and real time IR. Evaporation and side reactions, e.g. oxidation, are competing factors with the transesterification reaction. The fatty acid structure affects the conversion as a higher amount of unsaturations triggers higher degree of oxidation. The study also showed that reaction time and temperature affects the transesterification conversion, degree of side reactions, and catalyst choice.
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