Kritiskt tänkande i samhällskunskap : En studie som ur ett fenomenografiskt perspektiv belyser manifesterat kritiskt tänkande bland elever i grundskolans år 9
Sammanfattning: In this study a phenomenographic theoretical perspective is taken as departure for research on manifested critical thinking in civics among Swedish ninth-grade compulsory school students.According to the phenomenographic perspective students’ manifestations of critical thinking are linked to the way of experiencing the phenomena inducing a manifestation of critical thinking. Thus differences between students’ manifestations of critical thinking are linked to differences in the way of experiencing the phenomena inducing a manifestation of critical thinking.The empirical investigation in this study revolves around how 19 ninth-grade students experience four different tasks designed to induce manifestations of critical thinking. In broad terms the main aim of the study is to describe the students’ different ways of experiencing each specific task and furthermore, to link each specific way of experiencing a specific task to a specific type of manifested critical thinking in relation to that task. A more overarching aim is to offer and test the phenomenographic theoretical perspective as a way of conducting research on manifested critical thinking.The empirical results show how the way of experiencing a specific task plays a decisive roll for the type of manifested critical thinking, made possible in relation to the specific task. A more complex way of experiencing the task can be linked to a more complex manifestation of critical thinking in relation to the task. A less complex way of experiencing the task can be linked to a less complex manifestation of critical thinking in relation to the task. The study also suggests how these empirical results can be used in a pedagogical situation in order to enhance students manifested critical thinking in civics. Concerning the more overarching aim the study strongly points to a further use of the phenomenographic perspective when conducting research on students manifested critical thinking.
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